Since the time of the Old Testament, the Divine Feminine has been marginalized.

Yes, hints of Her remain, such as:
Gen.1.27-- "So God created man in his own image; ... male and female he created them."

Wis.9.9-- "...wisdom...was present at the making of the world by thee..."

Prov.8.27-31-- "When he set the heavens in their place I (wisdom) was there."

Bar.3.37-- "...wisdom appeared on earth and lived among men."

Prov.3.18--" She (wisdom) is a staff (tree) of life to all who grasp her, and those who hold her fast are safe."

There are many "She" mentions in Proverbs and the Septuagint Wisdom texts (such as Wisdom of Solomon).

The Jewish Tradition contains Divine Wisdom as in Proverbs, but She does not play a significant role in this tradition.

I note one major Christian tradition regularly features Mary as "Queen of Heaven", while Mary as "Queen of Heaven" is virtually non existent in another Christian tradition.
Thus the degree of marginalization appears to vary among the Christian traditions.

My new findings may connect the dots, and link together the early Jewish Goddess Asherah with the other Divine Feminine down through the ages. By good fortune, they do connect with my earlier Athena findings.




OVERVIEW---the Divine Feminine protected the Jewish people as they escaped from Egypt, and She later protected early Israel.

MY RESEARCH-- indicates that the early Jewish God YAHWEH had a consort ASHERAH (same as ANAT, later ATHENA.)
Ancient inscriptions: "Yahweh...and his Asherah"---"Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah" footnote a
ASHERAH (ANAT) protected the Jews and their nation Israel.
YAHWEH was a jealous God and wanted ASHERAH eliminated.
Eventually years later Israelites destroyed ASHERAH's statues and shrines.
Shortly thereafter, with the Goddess protection gone, Israel as a nation was destroyed.


JEALOUS GOD-" For the Lord's name is the Jealous God, and a jealous god he is." " You will not prostrate yourselves to any other god. " Exod.34:14
32 KINGS OF ISRAEL (970-609 BC) listed in 1 Kgs. and 2 Kgs.
Jealous God grades them right or wrong. Those that did "right" destroyed Asherah statues, hill-shrines, etc. Those that did "wrong" allowed worship of Asherah at hill-shrines, etc.
21 Kings (66%) "did what was WRONG in the eyes of the Lord."
8 Kings (25%) did "what was RIGHT in the eyes of the Lord" However, only two (6%) destroyed the hill-shrines.
3 Kings (9%) were not graded.

Some of those that did wrong had Asherah objects in the Temple and most all permitted Hill Shrines to Asherah. The kingdom appears to have remained intact with those Kings who did wrong in the eyes of the Jealous God.
Shortly after the hill-shrines to Asherah were destroyed, Israel was no more.

Jeremiah 44:18: "At that time we had plenty of food and were well off and suffered no harm. But ever since we stopped burning incense to the Queen of Heaven and pouring out drink offerings to her, we have had nothing and have been perishing by sword and famine."

1)- Solomon------ wrong- 1Kgs.11.33 ------------------------------yes- 1Kgs.11.5, 1Kgs.11.33------------- yes- 2Kgs.23.13
(Solomon followed Ashtoreth/Asherah--1kgs.11.5, prostrated himself before Ashtoreth/Asherah--1kgs.11.33 , Solomon built hill-shrines
for Ashtoreth/Asherah--2kgs.23.13)

2)- Jereboam ------wrong 1Kgs.14.7-11 ---------------------------------------------------------------------yes-1Kgs.12.31
3)- Rehoboam -----wrong 1Kgs.14.21 ---------------------------------yes- 1 Kgs.14.23 --------------------yes--Kgs.14.23
4)- Abijan ---------wrong 1Kgs.15.1 ------------------------------yes, implied 1Kgs.15.1 -------------------yes, implied 1Kgs.15.1
5)- Asa ------------right 1Kgs.15.9 --------------------------------no- burned Asherah 1Kgs.15.13 ----------yes-1Kgs.15.13
6)- Nadab ---------wrong 1Kgs.15.25
7)- Basha ----------wrong 1Kgs.15.33
8)- Elah -----------not graded 1Kgs.16.8
9)- Zimri ----------not graded 1Kgs.16.10
10)- Omri ---------wrong 1Kgs.16.25 ------------------------------------------------------------------------yes, implied 1Kgs.16.25
11)- Ahab ---------wrong 1Kgs.16.29 ---------------------------yes, sacred pole- 1Kgs.16.33 ---------------yes, implied 1Kgs16.29
12)- Akaziah ------not graded 2Kgs.1.2
13)- Jehoram ------wrong 2Kgs.3.1
13)- Joram --------wrong 2Kgs.8.16
14)- Akaziah ------wrong 2Kgs.8.25
15)- Jehu ----------right 2Kgs.10.30 -----------------------------no-killed all of hse of Ahab- 2Kgs10.11 -----yes, 2Kgs.10.29
16)- Jehoahaz -----wrong 2Kgs.13.1 ----------------------------yes, goddess Asherah remained Samaria-2Kgs.13.6
17)- Joash ---------right 2Kgs.12.1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------yes--2Kgs.12.1
18)- Jehoash ------wrong 2Kgs.13.10
19)- Amaziah ------right 2Kgs14.3, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------yes-2Kgs.14.4
20)- Jeroboam -----wrong 2Kgs.14.24
21)- Azariah --------right 2Kgs.15.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------yes--2Kgs.15.4
22)- Zechariah ------wrong 2Kgs.15.9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------yes--2Kgs.15.9
23)- Menahem ------wrong 2Kgs.15.18 ------------------------------------------------------------------------yes--2Kgs.15.18
24)- Pekahiah -------wrong 2Kgs.15.24 ------------------------------------------------------------------------yes--2Kgs.15.24
25)- Pekah ----------wrong 2Kgs.15.28 ------------------------------------------------------------------------yes--2Kgs.15.28
26)- Jotham ---------right 2Kgs.15.34 --------------------------------------------------------------------------yes-2Kgs.15.35
27)- Ahaz -----------wrong 2Kgs.16.2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------yes--2Kgs.16.4
28)- Hoshea ---------wrong 2Kgs.17.2
29)- Hezekiah -------right 2Kgs.18.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------no--2Kgs.18.4
(Hezekiah suppressed hill-shrines, cut down every sacred pole, broke up bronze serpent of Moses, etc,--
2Kgs.18.4. Four yrs later King of Assyria captured Samaria and deported the Israelites--2Kgs.18.9-11,
The Lord told Hezekiah that time is coming when the whole Kingdom will be lost to Babylon.--2Kgs.20.17

30)- Manasseh ------wrong 2Kgs.21.2 -----------put image of goddess Asherah in Temple--2kgs.21.7 -------yes--rebuilt 2Kgs.21.3
31)- Amon ----------wrong 2Kgs.21.20
32)- Josiah ----------right 2Kgs.21.2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------no--2Kgs.23.13
(Josiah ordered " remove from the house of the Lord all the objects made for Baal and Asherah."
2 Kgs.23:4, see also 2Kgs.23:6 "The King (Josiah) desecrated the hill-shrines which Solomon the King of Israel
had built for Ashtoreth (Asherah)" 2Kgs.23:13 Within the year, King Josiah was slain. 2 Kgs 23:29
12 yrs later, Nebuchadnezzar captured Israel, destroyed the Temple, took people into exile. 2 Kgs.24:10-17
"The defeat of Josiah at Megiddo essentially represented the end of the rule of the Davidic Line.")

Once the Divine Protectress was gone, the country was overun.


"Yahweh...and his Asherah"---"Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah"
footnote A1
"In Elephantine (modern Aswan) in Egypt, the 5th century Elephantine papyri make mention of a goddess called Anat-Yahu (Anat-Yahweh) worshiped in the temple to Yahweh originally built by Jewish refugees from the Babylonian conquest of Judah. These suggest that "even in exile and beyond the worship of a female deity endured." The texts were written by a group of Jews living at Elephantine near the Nubian border, whose religion has been described as "nearly identical to Iron Age II Judahite religion". The papyri describe the Jews as worshiping Anat-Yahu (or AnatYahu)." footnote 1

Anat--"During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties she appeared in the Egyptian sources as a significant goddess of war who was incorporated into the Egyptian mythology. It seems that Ramesses II had a special preference for Anat." footnote 2
"Ramesses II is one of the more popular candidates for the Pharaoh of the Exodus." footnote 2A
Anat and Athena---"In later Ugarit culture, Anath is associated with Athene, both the warrior goddess daughter of the chief male deity in the pantheon. There are bilingual inscriptions from Cyprus (KAI 42) that have Athene in one language and Anat in the other." footnote 3

"Egyptian representations of Anath show a nude goddess, often standing on a lion and holding flowers." footnote 4

Anat standing--
"Anath (seated) with battle axe, shield and spear, from Tanis, Egypt. The inscription states “Anat, Queen of Heaven, Mistress of the Gods.”--

Athena Promachos statue--
Athena coin---

Constantine moved the 30 foot tall bronze statue of Athena Promachos to Constantinople. (The statue was built by Phidias and stood in front of the Parthenon. "Athena was the goddess of wisdom and warriors and the protectress of Athens.") The Athena statue in Constantinople was "...destroyed in 1203 by a superstitious mob who thought she was beckoning the crusaders who had besieged the city." A year later, Constantinople was conquered. footnote 4A

Once the Divine Protectress was gone, the country or city was overun.

"Qudshu-Astarte-Anat is a representation of a single goddess who is a combination of three goddesses: Qetesh (Athirat, Asherah), Astarte, and Anat.
It was a common practice for Canaanites and Egyptians to merge different deities through a process of synchronization,
thereby, turning them into one single entity.
" footnote 5

Note triple-goddess Anat/Asherah holding snakes and flowers and standing on a lion (same as Anat above)



"The Burney Relief (also known as the Queen of the Night relief) is a Mesopotamian terracotta plaque in high relief of the Isin-Larsa- or Old-Babylonian period, depicting a winged, nude, goddess-like figure with bird's talons, flanked by owls, and perched upon supine lions. The relief is displayed in the British Museum in London, which has dated it between 1800 and 1750 BCE. It originates from southern Iraq, but the exact find-site is unknown. Apart from its distinctive iconography, the piece is noted for its high relief and relatively large size, which suggests that it was used as a cult relief, which makes it a very rare survival from the period. However, whether it represents Lilitu, Inanna/Ishtar, or Ereshkigal, is under debate.
The piece was loaned to the British Museum for display between 1980 and 1991, and in 2003 the relief was purchased by the Museum for the sum of £1,500,000 as part of its 250th anniversary celebrations. The Museum also renamed the plaque the "Queen of the Night Relief".[3] Since then, the object has toured museums around Britain...In 2008/9 the relief was included in exhibitions on Babylon at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, the Louvre in Paris, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.[47]"
footnote 6

My research suggests that the Burney Relief is the Goddess Anat / Divine Wisdom / Athene who protected Israel.
Location of goddess photos below---footnote 7

Note Goddess standing on lions with two owls either side. Goddess has owl's wings and owl's talons. Athena Goddess of Wisdom is linked to the owl.
"Some authors believe that, in early times, Athena was either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general: In the third Book of the Odyssey, she takes the form of a sea-eagle... In earlier times, Athena may well have been a bird goddess, similar to the unknown goddess depicted with owls, wings, and bird talons on the Burney relief, a Mesopotamian terracotta relief of the early second millennium BC." footnote 8



Goddess talons


Owl wings and talons--similar to Goddess's wings and talons


"Silver tetradrachm coin at the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon depicting the owl of Athena (circa 480–420 BC). " footnote 9



Jer.44.16-17: men and women said to Jeremiah: "We will not listen to what you tell us in the name of the Lord. We intend to fulfill all the promises by which we have bound ourselves: we will burn sacrifices to the queen of we used to the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem..."

Jeremiah 44:18: "At that time we had plenty of food and were well off and suffered no harm. But ever since we stopped burning incense to the Queen of Heaven and pouring out drink offerings to her, we have had nothing and have been perishing by sword and famine."

Jer.44.24-28: "Listen to the Word of the Lord, all of you from Judah who live in Egypt... You women have made your actions match your words. 'We will carry out our vows', you said 'to burn sacrifices to the queen of heaven and to pour drink-offerings to her.' Well then, fulfill your vows by all means, and make your words good."
"... I am on watch to bring you evil and not good...all the men of Judah who are in Egypt shall meet their end by the sword and by famine until not one is left. It is then that all the survivors of Judah who have made their home in Egypt shall know whose word prevails, theirs or mine."


Jer.31.31-34: "the time is coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with Israel and Judah. It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers...for I forgive their wrong-doing and remember their sin no more."






"A man named Simon had been in the city for some time, and had swept the Samaritans off their feet with his magical arts, claiming to be someone great. All of them, high and low, listened eagerly to him. 'This man', they said, 'is that power of God which is called "The Great Power".' They listened because they had for so long been carried away by his magic." Acts 8:9-12 NEB---dna18ark24

Simon prefered the Temple at Mt Gerizim, Samaria. "He denied Jerusalem, and introduced Mount Gerizim in its stead." footnote 10A

"The theory that Simon was accustomed to borrow from paganism is corroborated by the assertion of the Fathers that he and Helena were worshipped by their sect with the attributes of Zeus and Athene and received the cult-title Kv'pios and Kvpia. footnote 10 " Special to the Simonian tale is the identification of Simon himself with the Supreme, and of his consort Helena with the female principle." footnote 10A

"...Raphael Patai’s The Hebrew Goddess (1967, revised 1990), which argued that, before the split after Solomon’s reign, the Israelites had worshipped a goddess, Asherah, alongside Yahweh, revealing both polytheism and an awareness of the sacred feminine. (Images of cherubim excavated from ninth-century Israel are almost identical to Egyptian depictions of the winged Isis.) Patai also showed that early Israelite tradition incorporated a female figure which manifested God’s power of creation.
And as we know, all of these are characteristics of the teaching of the Samaritan Simon Magus – which makes sense if, as the Samaritans claimed, they really did preserve the original form of the Israelite religion." footnote 11

Simon Magus honored in Rome (per historian Eusebius):
"One of them was Simon, a Samaritan of the village of Gitto, who in the reign of Claudius Cæsar performed in your imperial city some mighty acts of magic by the art of demons operating in him, and was considered a god, and as a god was honored by you with a statue, which was erected in the river Tiber, between the two bridges, and bore this inscription in the Latin tongue, Simoni Deo Sancto, that is, To Simon the Holy God." footnote 12

Simon Magus's ideas entered the Catholic Church (per Eusebius):
"And what is surprising, the same thing is done even to this day by those who follow his most impure heresy. For they, after the manner of their forefather, slipping into the Church, like a pestilential and leprous disease greatly afflict those into whom they are able to infuse the deadly and terrible poison concealed in themselves."
footnote 12



("...the location chosen by Yahweh for his holy temple." footnote 20 "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah." footnote A1 )

(Simon Magus and Helena preached here as Zeus and Athena.)

"According to Flavius Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews 11), the Samaritans had built a Temple on Mt. Grizim which was later destroyed in 128 BCE by the Jewish High Priest, John Hyrcanus...In 72 CE, under the auspices of the Roman emperor Vespasian, a Roman city called Flavia Neapolis was built west of the area of biblical Shechem... In 135 CE Hadrian built a temple to Zeus on Mt. Grizim, most likely on the site of the ruins of the Samaritan temple...The Arab pronunciation of the Roman name is the basis of its present-day name, Nablus." footnote 15

On Mount Gerizim are "Christian Ruins: these consist of a church surrounded by a rectangular fortress with corner towers... The church is an octagon...This church is related by Procopius to have been erected by the Emperor Zeno not earlier than 474 A.D., and to have been dedicated to the Virgin." footnote 16
"The Byzantine ruler Zenon constructed a monastery and a church in 484 AD on the ruins of the holy precinct. Later it was enlarged by the ruler Justinian in 529 AD. It was dedicated to Mary 'Mother of God', or: Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer")." footnote 17

Templar cross in the Christian Church dedicated to Mary at Mount Gerizim-- footnote 17



"Among the most wealthy and powerful of the Western Christian military orders...Officially endorsed by the Roman Catholic Church around 1129...and the king granted the Templars a headquarters in a wing of the royal palace on the Temple Mount in the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque. The Temple Mount had a mystique because it was above what was believed to be the ruins of the Temple of Solomon." footnote 14

The Samaritan Temple on Mt Gerizim (near Nablus) was where Simon Magus and Helena preached at the time of Christ (as Zeus and Athena), later ca 135 CE it became the Temple of Zeus, after that ca 474 CE it became a Christian Church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. (see details Mount Gerizim above.) The Knights Templar must have added their Templar cross to the church walls ca 1100 CE.

Nablus: "During the Crusades, the Christians held the city for a brief interval from 1099-1187 using it as the Crusader capital, calling it Naples." footnote 15

HOLY BLOOD, HOLY GRAIL by Michael Baigent--photo after page 206



"...but we proclaim Christ...he is the power of God and the wisdom of God." 1 Cor. 1.23-24
"...for God has made him (Jesus) our wisdom..." 1Cor.1.30


After asking the Samaritan woman for a drink, Jesus explains to her that the living water he provides "will be the inner spring always welling up for eternal life."
John 4.14
Jesus explains "God is spirit..." John 4.24
The woman was amazed that Jesus somehow knew that she had five husbands. John 4.29

If Jesus knew the Samaritan woman had five husbands, he certainly knew of Zeus and Athena (Divine Wisdom) being worshipped next door at the Temple of Mount Gerizim in Samaria). Jesus certainly was very familiar with the Wisdom texts in the Septuagint (100 BC) which state:
From Wisdom--"...thou gavest abundant water unexpectedly." Wisdom of Solomon 11:7
" kinship with wisdom lies immortality." Wisdom of Solomon 8:17
"...she knows the past, she can infer what is to come..." Wisdom of Solomon 8:8
"Wisdom is a spirit devoted to a man's good..." Wisdom of Solomon 1:6

Jesus was discussing concepts (eternal life & spirit) that are in the Wisdom texts that Simon Magus and Helena (Athena) were preaching.

Was the Samaritan woman that Jesus spoke to possibly Helena (Athena/Divine Wisdom)? This was suggested by Rudolf Bultmann who states ref the woman at the well-- "the present illicit partner is then taken as...Simon Magus." footnote 13


"I, Jesus have sent my angel to you with this testimony..." Rev.22.16

"I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband." Rev.21.2

"Yes, I am coming soon..." Rev.22.12

"'Come!' say the Spirit and the bride.
'Come!' let each hearer reply.
Come forward, you who are thirsty; accept the water of life, a free gift to all who desire it." Rev.22.17


Yes, the Goddess Asherah/Anat hill-shrines were destroyed, and
yes, Jesus was crucified.
But what about "...coming soon..."?

Yes, I am coming soon..." Rev.22.12 (written 81-96 CE)

Maybe this is what Jesus meant by "...coming soon...":

Constantine's Nicene Creed clarifies diety of Christ and introduces Holy Spirit as part of Trinity---325 CE
Theodosiius I made Nicean Christianity the Roman Empire's sole authorized religion---380 CE
The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed expanded Constantine's thinking on Holy Spirit---381 CE

My research suggests Holy Spirit=Divine Wisdom=Athena=Anat/Asherah.
I note 325 or 381 Nicene Creeds do not specify a male gender for Holy Spirit.

The newly established and authorized Christian Church began a rapid expansion ca 381 after the Trinity was defined.
People worshipped the Trinity.
Mary, who took over some of the roles of Athena*,
was honored.
Nicene-Constantinopolitan Christianity spread throughout much of the world.

* Mary, who took over some of the roles of Athena:
1)- "In the 5th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary" footnote 18
2)- Mount Gerizim--church enlarged by the ruler Justinian in 529 AD. It was dedicated to Mary 'Mother of God', or: Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). footnote 17
3)- 626 CE- MIRACLE SAVED CONSTANTINOPLE-"Due to the intercession of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), the city was saved." footnote 19



FOOTNOTES (paste blue links in your browser):

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Eusebius Church History, Book 2, chapter 13, chapter 1 ---dna18ark169
footnote 13---Rudolf Bultmann "The Gospel of John- A Commentary", p.188, fn 3---athenaV
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footnote 16--- LINK TO SEE MOUNT GERIZIM)---dna18ark177
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